• English
  • Русский

Prediction as a Speech Genre

The article deals with a speech act «prediction», its content is a categorical declaration of future events. Semantically it is a type of communicative concepts, and pragmatically, it combines characteristics of declarations and commissives. Predictions may be either rationally determined or intuitively generated, the former are typical of a scientific discourse whereas the latter mostly function within religious and habitual communication. Two types of predictions are singled out – prophecies and divinations, the first are sent from the God, the second are obtain by means of esoteric practice. The object of a prediction is a significant event for an addressee. Prophets as subjects of prediction usually criticize people, and fortune tellers take the reality as it is. Prophets are opposed to pseudoprophets, sorcerers and frauds. Predictions may include conditions of their realization. Predictions are usually formulated in a vague manner and their interpretation is often ambiguous. Their genre system is very diverse and ranges from horoscopes to scientific and pseudo-scientific prognoses.

Bibliography

Austin J. Slovo kak deystvie [Word as action]. Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike [New in foreign linguistics]. Iss. XVII. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1986, pp. 22–129 (in Russian).

Ballmer T., Brennenstuhl W. Speech Act Classification : A Study in the Lexical Analysis of English Speech Activity Verbs. Berlin, Springer, 1981. 274 p.

Bogdanov V. V. Klassifikatsija rechevykh aktov [Classification of speech acts]. In: Lichnostnyye aspekty yazykovogo obshcheniya : Sb. nauch. tr. [Personal aspects of language communication : Coll. sci. papers]. Kalinin, Kalininsky gos. un-t Publ., 1989, pp. 25–37 (in Russian).

Dem’jankov V. Z. Ponjatije i kontsept v khudozhestvennoj literature i nauchnom jazyke [NOTION and CONCEPT in fiction and scientific language]. Voprosy filologii [Questions of philology]. 2001, no. 1, pp. 35–47 (in Russian).

Gak V. G. Pragmatika, uzus i grammatika rechi [Pragmatics, usage and grammar of Speech]. Inostrannyje jazyki v shkole [Foreign Languages in School], 1982, no. 5, pp. 11– 17 (in Russian).

Glovinskaya M. Ya. Predskazanija i prorochestva v russkom jazyke [Predictions and prophecies in the Russian language]. In: Ponyatije sud’by v kontekste raznykh kul’tur [The concept of fate in the context of different cultures]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1994, pp. 174–180 (in Russian).

Glovinskaya M. Ya. Predskazyvat’ [Predicting]. In: Novyj objasnitel’nyj slovar’ sinonimov russkogo jazyka [New Explanatory Dictionary of Synonyms of the Russian Language]. 2nd ed. Moscow, Shkola “Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury” Publ., 2003, pp. 825–830 (in Russian).

Karasik V. I. Jazykovoj krug : lichnost’, kontsepty, diskurs [Language circle : personality, concepts, discourse]. Moscow, Gnozis Publ., 2004. 390 p. (in Russian).

Krasavskiy N. A. Emotsional’nyje kontsepty v nemetskoj i russkoj lingvokul’turakh [Emotional concepts in German and Russian linguocultures]. Moscow, Gnozis Publ., 2008. 374 p. (in Russian).

Kreckel M. Communicative Acts and Shared Knowledge in Natural Discourse. London, Academic Press, 1981. 316 p.

Pimenova M. V. Kontsept SERDTSE : Obraz. Ponjatije. Simvol [Concept HEART : Image. Notion. Symbol]. Kemerovo, KemGU Publ., 2007. 500 p. (in Russian).

Romanov A. A. Sistemnyj analiz reguljativnykh sredstv dialogicheskogo obshchenija [System analysis of regulatory means of dialogical communication]. Moscow, In-t yazykoznaniya AN SSSR Publ., 1988. 183 p. (in Russian).

Searle J. Chto takoe rechevoy akt? [What is a speech act?]. Novoe v zarubezhnoy lingvistike [New in foreign linguistics], iss. XVII. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1986, pp. 151–169 (in Russian).

Slyshkin G. G. Lingvokul’turnyje kontsepty i metakontsepty [Linguistic-cognitive concepts and metaconcepts]. Volgograd, Peremena Publ., 2004. 340 p. (in Russian).

Stepanov Yu. S. Konstanty. Slovar’ russkoy kul’tury. Opyt issledovanija [Constants. Dictionary of Russian culture. Experience of research]. Moscow, Shkola “Jazyki russkoj kul’tury” Publ., 1997. 824 p. (in Russian).

Sternin I. A. Opisanije kontsepta v lingvokontseptologii [Description of a concept in linguoconceptology]. Lingvokontseptologija [Lingvoconceptology]. Voronezh, Istoki Publ., 2008, iss.1, pp. 8–20 (in Russian).

Stiles W. B. Classification of Intersubjective Illocutionary Acts. Language in Society, 1981, vol. 10, pp. 227–249.

Susov I. P. Lingvisticheskaja pragmatika [Linguistic pragmatics]. Vinnitsa, Nova Knyga Publ., 2009. 272 p. (in Russian).

Vorkachev S. G. Voploshchenije smysla : conceptualia selecta : monografiya [The embodiment of meaning : conceptualia selecta]. Volgograd, Paradigma Publ., 2014. 331 p. (in Russian).

 

Full Text (PDF):
(downloads: 165)