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DIALOGUE AS THE MOST IMPORTANT SPEECH GENRE FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

The article is devoted to professionally oriented teaching of the Russian language. Particular attention is given to dialogue as the main speech genre for students of a medical universities. The dialogue helps the doctor conducts an anamnesis, or a patient interview for the diagnosis. Anamnesis collection is a professional dialogue-inquiry. There are three styles of speech: oral colloquial speech, oral business and oral scientific speech. This is specificity and complexity during the study. The features of colloquial speech are largely dictated by the conditions in which the dialogue takes place: unpreparedness, situationality, spontaneity, lack of preliminary thinking, the possibility of escorting by intonation, facial expressions, gestures, specific addressing. All this makes the doctor’s dialogue with the patient emotional and expressive. The official-business style of speech implies compliance with the norms of official etiquette; reliability and objectivity; accuracy, excluding a double understanding of the text; maximum brevity, conciseness of formulations; impeccability in legal terms; the standard of the language in the presentation of typical situations of business communication; neutral tone of presentation; often obligatory prescriptive; he is distinguished by his lack of emotion. The official-business style of speech of the doctor’s dialogue with the patient dictates the observance of certain etiquette norms. Politeness as the central category of etiquette implies the formation of certain communicative intentions such as: appeal, greeting, gratitude, request, sympathy, condolence, etc. – and the formulas for their expression. The scientific style of speech, characterized by abstractness, generality, accuracy and logical presentation, is distinguished by the presence of special vocabulary, terminology, unambiguous words, limited use of emotionally-valued vocabulary. As practice shows, the most difficult for students is the ability to implement interstyle language transformations. In our opinion, inadmissible is the use of vernaculars and professional jargon in the speech of the doctor who is talking with the patient. The speech of the doctor, despite the conversational nature of the conversation with the patient, must correspond to the literary norm. The exercises described in the article are devoted to the formation of the ability to carry out interstyle language transformations.

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